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XPO LOGISTICS, INC. filed this Form 10-Q on 11/05/2018
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Performance Obligations
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in Topic 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The following is a description of the Company’s performance obligations for the transportation and logistics reportable segments.
Reportable Segment
Nature, Timing of Satisfaction of Performance Obligations, and Significant Payment Terms
The Company’s transportation segment generates revenue from providing truck brokerage and transportation services for its customers. Certain accessorial services may be provided to customers under their transportation contracts, such as unloading and other incidental services. The Company deems the transportation services including related accessorial services as a single performance obligation as the accessorial services are immaterial in the context of the contracts with customers. The transaction price is based on the consideration specified in the contract with the customer.

A performance obligation is created when a customer under a transportation contract submits a bill of lading for the transport of goods from origin to destination. These performance obligations are satisfied as the shipments move from origin to destination. Transportation revenue is recognized proportionally as a shipment moves from origin to destination and related costs are recognized as incurred. Some of the customer contracts contain a promise to stand ready as the Company is obligated to provide transportation services for the customer. For these contracts, the Company recognizes revenue on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract because the pattern of benefit to the customer as well as the Company’s efforts to fulfill the contract are generally distributed evenly throughout the period. Performance obligations are short-term with transit days less than one week. Generally, customers are billed either upon shipment of the freight or monthly and remit payment according to approved payment terms.

The Company recognizes revenue on a net basis when the Company does not control the specific services, is not responsible for providing the transportation service and does not have discretion in establishing the price for the service.
The Company’s logistics segment generates revenue from providing warehousing services for its customers, including e-fulfillment, reverse logistics, packaging and warehousing and distributing under contracts ranging from a few months to a few years. The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as the customers simultaneously receive and consume the benefits of the Company’s services. The contracts contain a single performance obligation as the distinct services provided are satisfied over time and are substantially the same and possess the same pattern of transfer. The transaction price is based on the consideration specified in the contract with the customer and contains fixed and variable consideration. In general, the fixed consideration component of a contract represents reimbursement for facility and equipment costs incurred to satisfy the performance obligation and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract. The variable consideration component is comprised of cost reimbursement, per unit pricing or time and materials pricing and is determined based on the costs, units or hours of services provided, respectively, and is recognized over time based on the level of activity volume.

Generally, the Company’s contracts contain provisions for adjustments to pricing based on achieving agreed-upon performance metrics, changes in volumes, services and other market conditions. Revenue relating to such pricing adjustments is estimated and included in the consideration if it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur in the future. The estimate of variable consideration is determined either by the expected value or most likely amount method and factors in current, past and forecasted experience with the customer. Customers are billed based on the terms specified in the contract with the customer and remit payment according to approved payment terms.