In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): “Restricted Cash.” This ASU requires that the statement of cash flows reconcile the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2018 and applied its provisions retrospectively. The adoption of this standard reduced cash flows provided by operating activities by approximately $14 million and reduced cash flows used by investing activities by approximately $40 million on the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the year ended December 31, 2017.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost.” The ASU changes how employers that sponsor defined benefit pension and/or other postretirement benefit plans present the cost of the benefits in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. This cost, commonly referred to as the “net periodic benefit cost,” is comprised of several components that reflect different aspects of the arrangement with the employee, including the effect of the related funding. Previously, the Company aggregated the various components of the net periodic benefit cost (including interest cost and the expected return on plan assets) for presentation purposes and included these costs within Operating income in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Under the new guidance, these costs are presented below Operating income. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2018 and recast prior periods to reflect the new presentation. The adoption of the standard had no impact on Net income. The amount of net periodic benefit income included in Other expense (income) was $17.8 million and $10.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $54.5 million and $29.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): “Scope of Modification Accounting.” This ASU provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. Under the new standard, modification accounting applies unless all of the following conditions are met: (i) the fair value of the modified award is the same as the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification, (ii) the vesting conditions of the modified award are the same as the vesting conditions of the original award immediately before the modification, and (iii) the classification of the modified award as an equity instrument or a liability instrument is the same as the classification of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. Generally speaking, modification accounting requires an entity to calculate and recognize the incremental fair value of the modified award as compensation cost on the date of modification (for a vested award) or over the remaining service period (for an unvested award). The impact of this guidance, which was applied prospectively on January 1, 2018, is dependent on future modifications, if any, to the Company’s share-based payment awards.
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): “Amendments to Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118.” The ASU amends ASC 740 to provide further guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) and allows for the recognition of provisional amounts in the event that a company does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed to finalize its accounting under ASC 740. ASU 2018-05 allows for adjustments to provisional amounts in multiple reporting periods during the allowable one-year measurement period from the Tax Act enactment date. This standard was effective upon issuance. As of December 31, 2017, the Company accounted for the mandatory deemed repatriation of accumulated foreign earnings and potential Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) and Foreign Derived Intangible Income on a provisional basis. As of September 30, 2018, the Company has not made a policy decision regarding whether to record deferred taxes on GILTI as the decision may be impacted by future clarification and guidance regarding available tax accounting methods and elections and state tax conformity to the Tax Act. However, the accounting for the mandatory deemed repatriation of accumulated foreign earnings is no longer provisional as the Company filed its 2017 U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return in September 2018 and determined that it is not subject to a tax liability on the mandatory repatriation.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued but Not Yet Effective
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The core principle of Topic 842 is that a lessee should recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases, including operating leases. Under the new requirements, a lessee will recognize in the balance sheet a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and the right-of-use asset representing the right to the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12